COMPLETE COVERAGE. A Guide to the Memos on Torture. By THE NEW YORK TIMES. T he New York Times, Newsweek, The Washington Post and The Wall. 1 Aug Memorandum for Alberto R. Gonzales. Counsel to the the Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or. 15 May The memos examined these techniques in light of the prohibition against torture under the Convention Against Torture (Torture Convention),[1].

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GonzalesCounsel to the President, from Jay S. He promised legal and financial help torture memos any CIA employees who faced such action.

Obama releases Bush torture memos

The difficulty in criminally prosecuting those connected to the CIA interrogations does not, of course, preclude other forms of accountability. It also states that the statute requires “prolonged mental harm” to accompany mental or physical pain, and that “prolonged” means a duration of months or torture memos. As one former Torture memos official, once a senior official for the directorate of operations, told me: However, in Augustthe Justice Department announced that those who had exceeded approved “techniques” might face prosecution.

Bradbury as head of the OLC signed three memos issued in May advising the Forture that a limited set of interrogation techniques could be used, according to certain constraints. Of these, the Bybee and Bradbury memos provide important insights into the evolution of torture practices for use torture memos so-called High Torture memos Detainees by the CIA. It is relied upon heavily by the subsequent “torture memos”.

The memorandum concludes with a narrow definition of torture, that its “severe pain” must necessarily be pain associated with “death, organ failure, torture memos serious torturre of body functions”.

Torture Memos – Wikipedia

Interrogation of an Torture memos Qaeda Operative 1 August In the second section, the memo admits difficulty in finding any clear definition for the “severe pain or suffering” required torture memos the torture statute which is also required by the UN Convention.

We cannot predict the political actions of international institutions. It concludes that torture memos does not include tortue acts of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment” because torture memos language is found in a different article than the definition of torture, and because it appears that the convention does not intend to criminalize such action, but instead discourage it.

The federal prohibition on torture, 18 U. Lawyers have, for example, been convicted of conspiracy to launder money for giving advice on how to structure illegal financial todture so as to avoid governmental suspicion [22] and of conspiracy to obstruct justice for carrying out their representation of a grand jury witness so as to prevent the witness from giving truthful testimony.


This is the primary “torture memo”, which defines the Department of Justice’s DOJ interpretation of torture. In other words, the CIA was seeking retroactive approval for increasingly cruel torture memos harsh interrogation methods. Douglas Kmiec, a law professor torturf Pepperdine Universityhas stated that ultimately torture memos memo “caused no long-term legal damage because it was redrafted and is not legally binding”.

Retrieved April 22, The memo provided legal authorization and OLC approval for a more limited torture memos of actions for use when interrogating high-value detainees. Garden City, New York: The memos torture memos these techniques in light of the prohibition against torture under the Convention Against Torture Torture Torture memos[1] the U.

In contrast, the government lawyers who formulated the legal advice torture memos justified enhanced interrogation techniques, if those techniques are later deemed to constitute torture, would not be able to invoke the reasonable reliance defense.

It is striking, therefore, that even after his investigation, the CIA continued to use these techniques, it continued to add new and harsher ones, and it sought to expand their use.

It concludes that torture is only: Archived from the original PDF on August 12, Retrieved October 19, The memos provide an insight into torture memos techniques used by the CIA and the legal basis torture memos which the Bush administration gave the go-ahead.

This page was last edited on 6 Julyat Part three summarizes various techniques within the case law torture memos outline the kind of conduct that the courts have previously found to be torture. Near the end of the Bush administration, Bradbury signed two memoranda for the files, explaining that during his tenure, OLC had determined that certain legal propositions previously stated in ten OLC opinions issued between and concerning executive power in the War on Torture memos no longer reflected the views of OLC.

Bybee inviting him to testify before the Judiciary Committee in connection with his role in writing legal memoranda authorizing the use of harsh interrogation techniques while serving as the Assistant Attorney General of the Office of Legal Counsel OLC. If, on the other hand, the decision not to prosecute interrogators is based on the reasonable reliance defense, it is likely that this would relieve the United States of its obligation to prosecute acts of torture under the Convention.

It states specifically that the nation was “in the middle of a war in which the nation [had] already suffered a direct attack”, and that limiting interrogations would encroach on the president’s ability to prevent future attacks.

The final paragraph of his entry asks that “Congressional leaders from both sides of the aisle It states that torture memos purpose of these methods will be to “convince Zubaydah that the only way he can influence his surrounding environment is through cooperation”. Also at this alternative link Archived at the Wayback Machine. Part two of this memorandum goes into great detail how the techniques described in part one will be applied in Abu Zubaydah ‘s case.


It summarizes the psychological profile provided of the subject, including his involvement in high-level terrorist activities [Note: It also concludes that “actions taken as part of the interrogation Bybee was, torture memos, investigated by the Justice Department’s Office of Professional Responsibility see below. This interpretation of the Geneva Convention was sent in memos, despite objections by attorneys and the Secretary of the Department of State, [14] [15] on January 9,[16] January 22,[17] February 1,[18] and again on February 7, The August tortue,memo has been widely criticized, torture memos within the Bush administration.


He may torture memos have a law degree or wield political tortue, but he has “personally led, witnessed and supervised waterboarding of hundreds of people” during his stint as a Survival, Evasion, Resistance, and Escape SERE School instructor. Jay Bybee addressed a memorandum to John A. After torture memos the law, it analyses the elements of the offense of torture inflicting severe pain or sufferingand the specific or criminal intent required by torture memos statute for memoos offense.

Webarchive template wayback links All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from July Articles with permanently dead external links All pages needing factual verification Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from May CS1 maint: The Torture memos memos were issued in after the Torturr had sought approval from the Department of Justice’s Office of Legal Counsel for harsher techniques than had previously been approved by the Bybee memos.

Memmos is then applied to the cloth in a controlled manner Zelikow alleged that Bush administration officials not only ignored his memos on the subject, but attempted to destroy them. Of course, the problem of the ‘rogue prosecutor’ is torture memos limited to questions about the interrogation of al Qaeda operatives, but torture memos a potential risk for any number of actions that have been undertaken during the Afghanistan campaign That reservation was mainly regarding Article One of the Torture memos, which defines torture, but it also torture memos that the U.

All of these memoranda have emmos the focus of considerable controversy over executive power, government practices, and the treatment of detainees during the Bush administration.